LASERS IN INDUSTRY

LASERS IN INDUSTRY

Marking the product is necessary in many industries. An enterprise may be required to take action due to national or international law, but also for internal reasons. In addition to allowing tracing of the product during the production process, a permanent mark on the product also informs consumers about the characteristics of the product, such as its expiration date. The most common methods for applying such signs to products are printing, mechanical engraving, and laser engraving.

Marking in the workplace must be permanent and environmental resistant, and the marking must be readable. The process of marking an object by printing entails applying paint, ink or ink to it. This is because a marking made in this manner may degrade over time, especially over a long period of time. Paint can be easily removed from an object by rubbing it off. This is where engraving excels. The process involves removing a thin layer of material from an object’s surface. Due to their ability to be configured, laser markers can engrave and mark practically any material, including metals, wood, plastics or even paper.

The laser

It is difficult to explain the principle of Laserowe Znakowanie in a simple way, but focus is required while reading. Read on to find out what focus means. It is possible to mark with a laser by focusing the laser beam, and therefore the energy and power, at one point. It is possible to heat and melt or evaporate materials with high power density. However, how does this light come about?

We have to refer to the laws of physics to explain this problem, but since we are on a portal that deals with industrial automation, some information should be taken into account:

  • Depending on their energy states (energy amounts), atoms can be in different states.
  • Energy can be absorbed by atoms and emitted by them (emission).
  • Energy is given off by atoms in a specific direction,

At least three components make up a laser: a resonator, a pumping system, and an active medium.

Atoms are the active medium because they are the ones that receive and return energy. For this, crystals of certain elements, gases (most often CO2), or glass fibers can be used.

The pumping system delivers energy to the active medium. Flashes, lasers, chemical reactions, or gas discharges (in gas) can accomplish this. Laser action occurs when there are more atoms in the active medium in a higher energy state (atoms that have absorbed energy), releasing energy as radiation.

Resonators aid in achieving the laser beam’s desired parameters. A specific wavelength is the first factor to consider. In most cases, it comprises two precisely made mirrors that can reflect photons with specific parameters. As one of the mirrors is semi-transparent, the laser beam can pass outside of the resonator. The mirrors guide the atoms’ energy in the right direction.

 

Marking with lasers

Laser beams are monochromatic, which is their greatest advantage. The wavelength of each photon is the same. This results in a coherent beam with all photons moving approximately parallel to each other. Mirrors can be used to steer this beam.

It is common to use integrated solutions when marking. To ensure that the system is always operating correctly and without maintenance, the laser, mirrors, focusing lenses, and software are all integrated. You can create projects, enter symbols and configure parameters like the power and speed of the laser beam. There is no need to worry how the system will rotate the mirrors to get the desired shape. The galvanic motors rotate the mirrors in such a way that firing is fast and precise. The following video illustrates how this works in practice.

Systems for marking with lasers

There are many laser marking systems available in the world from different manufacturers. Using additional pipes and periscopes with special optics, we can achieve horizontal and vertical firing as well as longer distances. Marking systems are also included in the finished stations.

A good example is Panasonic’s solution, which offers ready-made workstations. They can be marked with marking machines that use a CO2 source, which are suitable for marking plastics, PET bottles, organic materials, packaging, textiles, and paper, or with marking machines that use a FAYB source, which are suitable for more demanding plastics and metals.

Laser burning examples

Laser marking enables the application of non-standard information on components fast and easily, according to the demands of the customer. Modifications of any significance can easily be implemented. Using the 3D function, it is possible to simultaneously and easily apply multiple information to objects of complex shapes, and the obtained markings have excellent contrast directly affecting the work of vision systems. On multiple surfaces, the printing element does not need to be rotated. Using MOFPA (Master Oscillator Fiber Power Amplifier) technology, Panasonic Laser Marking Systems can be operated in a wide range of peak powers and pulse widths.